Learning theory is a long term project. I'll give you a few things but you should really buy a jazz theory book. Mark Levine wrote a great book, I think its even called the Jazz Theory Book. A really great beginner book is called the jazz language by Dan Haerle.
1. learn all of your major scales.
2. learn what chord symbols mean.
Or google these things. The lower case m next to a note means it's a minor chord. When you're first learning I'd keep it simple. Learn 3 types of chords: major, minor and dominant. To build a major chord learn the major scale of the note listed in the chord. Find the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th note of the scale. For example C major: the C major scale is CDEFGABC. Therefore a C major chord is C E G B
Minor chords are exactly the same except the 3rd note and 7th note of the scale are lowered a half step. For example: Cm (C minor chord) C major scale CDEFGABC. Find 1 b3 5 b7
C Eb G Bb
Dominant is the same as major except you lower the 7th a half step. C E G Bb
You'll need to learn the F#, G# and C# major scales, then lower the 3rds and 7th.
Initially this seems really hard but once you learn it you'll get better quickly. Remember there are only 12 keys. So really you're just memorizing 12 chords. Good luck. Seriously look into buying a beginner jazz theory book. Dan Haerle's is very straightforward.
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